Volume 14, Number 2 – 01/30/11

Volume 14, Number 2 – 1/30/11FUTURE FACTS – FROM THINK LINKS

DNA molecules can teleport, Nobel prize winning biologist says.British researchers have genetically modified a chicken so that it can get the flu, but can’t pass it on to other birds – or, presumably, to the humans who take care of them.The company behind Microsoft’s Kinect controller can replace your TV remote with your hand gestures.Affordable housing is desperately needed in many parts of the developing world. Check out an environmentally green, structurally stable domicile that can be produced for around $300.
by John L. Petersen

Something strange is happening. UFOs are showing up over major global cities – on schedule.

Of course, UFOs show up all the time all over the place. If you’re not aware of that, then you’re really not keeping track of what’s going on in that space. YouTube is full of amateur videos. One guy put up a compilation of snips of NASA footage from over the years that certainly show lots of anomalies. Almost six million people have looked at that one already.

A year ago there was a very large pyramidal “thing” over the Kremlin. In China, the government shut down major airports in the last few of months because of “craft?” in their airspace which were witnessed by hundreds if not thousands of people. In March there were strange shapes hovering over London.

Then Stanley A. Fulham, a former Canadian Air Force officer said he had information that UFOs would show up over the sky of New York on the 13h of October. They showed up. Then there was one near Washington, DC’s Dulles airport in November.

Fulham said that the “objects” would be over Moscow and London again in early January of this year. Here’s video footage from the 16th from Moscow. And just a couple of days ago something was flying over Jerusalem.

Looks like a trend to me.


Chilled Light Enters a New Phase – (Nature – November 24, 2010)
The fuzzy dividing line between light and atoms has been blurred even further. Quantum physicists have created the first Bose-Einstein condensate using photons – a feat until now suspected to be possible only for atoms. The technique could be used to increase the efficiency of solar cells and lasers.

DNA Molecules Can Teleport, Nobel Winner Says – (Tech World – January 13, 2011)
A Nobel Prize winning biologist has ignited controversy after publishing details of an experiment in which a fragment of DNA appeared to ‘teleport’ or imprint itself between test tubes. According to a team headed by Luc Montagnier, previously known for his work on HIV and AIDS, two test tubes, one of which contained a tiny piece of bacterial DNA, the other pure water, were surrounded by a weak electromagnetic field of 7Hz. Eighteen hours later, after DNA amplification using a polymerase chain reaction, as if by magic the DNA was detectable in the test tube containing pure water.

New Type Of Entanglement Allows ‘Teleportation in Time,’ Say Physicists – (Technology Review – January 17, 2011)
Entanglement is the strange quantum phenomenon in which two or more particles become so deeply linked that they share the same existence. That leads to some counterintuitive effects, in particular, when two entangled particles become widely separated. When that happens, a measurement on one immediately influences the other, regardless of the distance between them. This “spooky-action-at-a-distance” has profound implications about the nature of reality but a clear understanding of it still eludes physicists. Today, they have something else to puzzle over. Jay Olson and Timothy Ralph at the University of Queensland in Australia say they’ve discovered a new type of entanglement that extends, not through space, but through time.

Violent Seismic Activity Tearing Africa in Two – (Before It’s News – January 20, 2011)
The fissures began appearing years ago. But in recent months, seismic activity has accelerated in northeastern Africa as the continent breaks apart in slow motion. Researchers say that lava in the region is consistent with magma normally seen on the sea floor — and that water will ultimately cover the desert. Lately the Erta Ale volcano in northeastern Ethiopia has been erupting. The volcano’s crater had always been filled with a bubbling soup of silver-black lava, but it had been decades since its last eruption.

For Fully Mature Black Holes, Time Stands Still – ( – January 27, 2011)
Though observations suggest black holes are prevalent in the universe, scientists still don’t really understand what goes on inside them. The equations of general relativity usually used to understand the physics of the universe break down in these cases. Mercifully, the physics for the end state of a black hole is somewhat simpler. A solution to the equations of general relativity was found that produced a situation called “Kerr spacetime.” Scientists now think Kerr spacetime is what happens when a black hole has reached its final evolutionary state, a mind-bending kind of space-time independent of time. A new study proposes a method to tell how far any black hole is from reaching this end state.


Kidney Gene Implicated in Increased Heart Failure Risk – (Science Daily – January 17, 2011)
Scientists have identified the first DNA sequence variant common in the population that is not only associated with an increased risk of heart failure, but appears to play a role in causing it. The variant, a change in a single letter of the DNA sequence, impairs channels that control kidney function. “It’s not a heart gene,” says Gerald W. Dorn II, MD, Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and a lead investigator on the study. “It’s a kidney gene. This protein is not even expressed in the heart. Nobody has previously considered that kidney-specific gene defects might predispose you to heart failure.”

TB Vaccine Protects Before and After Exposure – (BBC News – January 23, 2011)
Tuberculosis left untreated can be deadly. However, only in a small number of cases – fewer than 5% – do the symptoms develop immediately after infection. In more than 90% of cases, once Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium which causes the disease, has invaded the body it changes its chemical signature, and lives in a dormant – or “latent” – state. Now a new vaccine that can fight TB before and after infection has been developed by Danish scientists and could offer protection for many years more than is now possible.

Contagious Cancer Thrives in Dogs by Adopting Host’s Genes – (Science Daily – January 20, 2011)
Scientists at Imperial College London have uncovered an unusual process that helps the cancer survive by stealing tiny DNA-containing mitochondria from the cells of the infected animal, to incorporate as its own. They say this may be because genes in the tumor’s own mitochondria have a tendency to mutate and degenerate. The findings may have broad implications for halting the spread of similar diseases in other animals and for understanding cancer progression across species. Mitochondrial transfer between genetically distinct cells has previously been observed in the laboratory, but this is the first time it has been demonstrated to occur in nature.

Spotting Alzheimer’s Disease Early – (Technology Review – January 19, 2011)
A new molecular dye might eventually help diagnose Alzheimer’s disease much earlier, which could prove vital to developing effective treatments and preventative measures. The molecule binds to amyloid plaques, the neurological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, and can be detected in the living human brain with PET imaging. Previously, the only definitive way to detect amyloid in the brain, and hence diagnose the disease, was via an autopsy. “Now we can see this Alzheimer’s lesion in living people, and that’s a big step,” says John Morris, director of the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University. Morris was not involved in the study. “Ultimately, we would like to move diagnosis to the preclinical stage [before symptoms appear] and see if we can devise strategies to prevent the brain damage that produces dementia. But it will be years before we get to that stage.”

Can Vaccine Studies Be Trusted? – (Natural News – January 26, 2011)
Many “scientific” drug and vaccine studies are spurious. The Journal of the American Medical Association [2005;294(2):218-28] published a paper showing that one-third of “highly cited original clinical research studies” were eventually contradicted by subsequent studies. The supposed effects of specific interventions either did not exist as the original studies concluded, or were exaggerated. The fact that vaccine studies are often funded by vaccine manufacturers is probably relevant. Although many people consider this unethical or corrupt, in the world of immunizations this is an acceptable practice, condoned by the CDC and FDA.


Strange Claim: The Sun Rose Two Days Early in Greenland – (Live Science – January 17, 2011)
Residents of a town on the western coast of Greenland may have seen the sun peek over the horizon 48 hours earlier than its usual arrival on Jan. 13, sparking speculation, and disagreements, over possible causes. The town of Ilulissat sits just above the Arctic Circle, meaning its residents had been without any sunlight for a good chunk of the winter, and traditionally they’d expect to see their “first sunrise” on Jan. 13. The possible reasons for this (as well as the validity of the original report) are still being debated.

Glaciers That Are Growing Rather Than Shrinking – (Daily Mail – January 27, 2011)
Climate change may not be as catastrophic for Greenland’s icecaps as scientists first thought after researchers found hotter summers may actually slow down the flow of glaciers. Increased melting in the warmer summer months is causing the internal drainage system of the ice sheet to ‘adapt’ and accommodate more melt-water, without speeding up the flow of ice toward the oceans. This is because in hot conditions there is initially so much melt-water that it runs off into channels below the ice, thereby decreasing the lubricating layer which sits on top of the ice sheets and causes melting over a much larger surface area.

Betting on a Warmer World – (Weather Channel – September 24, 2010)
Venture capitalists are not particularly thought of as torchbearers for the modern environmental movement. Yet a number of them have quietly accepted the notion of warming, and they’re scanning the globe for investment opportunities in a changing planet. In the past two years, as many as 50 million acres – the equivalent of all of the cropland in France, or 10 percent of arable Africa – have changed hands as investors are betting that population growth and climate change – with it’s accompanying droughts and desertification and flooding – will soon make food as valuable as oil.


Gestures That Your TV Will Understand – (Technology Review – January 21, 2011)
Thanks to Microsoft’s Kinect, millions are casting aside their controllers and using their bodies to play games. Now the company that created the motion-tracking hardware for the Kinect, PrimeSense, based in Tel Aviv, wants to make waving your arms an accepted way to control everything from your TV to your desktop computer. In collaboration with PC manufacturer Asus, PrimeSense has developed a device called the WAVI Xtion. It looks a lot like the Kinect controller, but connects via a PC to the TV and lets the viewer use gestures to control what appears on the screen.

Spotify Is the Coolest Music Service You Can’t Use – (Wired – December 27, 2010)
If you live in the U.S., Spotify is perhaps the biggest, coolest, greatest piece of software you’re not allowed to use. It’s a stand-alone application that lets users listen to and share any song by any artist instantly and for free. And it’s entirely legal. The service supports itself (and pays for music rights) with advertising and monthly subscriptions that unlock premium features such as the ability to store songs on an iPod, mobile phone, or tablet. Spotify is an elegant application, by far the simplest, easiest way to listen to digital music. It’s faster and more responsive than iTunes, torrents, or Pandora. The company estimates that it has more than 10 million users in seven countries, with more than 500,000 paying subscribers. It has fundamentally changed how people listen to music in Europe.


The $300 House: A Hands-On Lab for Reverse Innovation? – (Harvard Business Review – August 26, 2010)
David A. Smith, the founder of the Affordable Housing Institute tells us that “markets alone will never satisfactorily house a nation’s poorest citizens…whether people buy or rent, housing is typically affordable to only half of the population.” The result? The shanty towns, settlements, and ever-expanding slums on the outskirts of cities in the developing world. So the question became how to create an environmentally green, structurally stable (in light of tsunamis, earthquakes, mudslides, etc.) domicile for $300. This article has some answers.

WorldHaus – (WorldHaus website – no date)
There are millions of households making between $160-$450 a month with poor access to credit and less than 40 square feet of floor space per person in their current dwellings. The market to provide affordable housing in India alone is estimated at roughly $250 billion. To meet this growing demand, Idealab has created a kit home that meets the basic needs of the aspiring middle class in the developing world at a price they can afford. WorldHaus is a 20 square meter home with an optional dual-use storefront that can be put together by a family in less than a week. Made with a breakthrough reinforced aluminum wall panel system, WorldHaus is safe, energy-efficient, and built to withstand extreme weather. Cost: $2,500, which works out to $249 down and $29 a month.


New Magnets Could Solve Our Rare-Earth Problems – (Technology Review – January 20, 2011)
Stronger, lighter magnets could enter the market in the next few years, making more efficient car engines and wind turbines possible. Researchers need the new materials because today’s best magnets use rare-earth metals, whose supply is becoming unreliable even as demand grows. So researchers are now working on new types of nanostructured magnets that would use smaller amounts of rare-earth metals than standard magnets.

Italian Cold Fusion Saga Continues – (Pure Energy Systems – January 27, 2011)
The Italian inventor Andrea Rossi has announced that he has a commercial ready cold fusion reactor that is safe and reliable, capable of producing 10 kW of heat; and is in process of going into production, with a 1 MW plant being built ganging 125 of these units together. Rossi has allowed outside scientists to perform tests on the module and report on their findings. Papers on these tests have begun to emerge. Research papers out of the University of Bologna confirm that much more energy is coming out of the reactor than is required to run the reactor, including a self-running mode; and that radiation is not escaping from the machine.


Breakthrough Promises $1.50 Per Gallon Synthetic Gasoline with No Carbon Emissions – (GizMag – January 26, 2011)
UK-based Cella Energy has developed a synthetic fuel that could lead to US$1.50 per gallon gasoline. Apart from promising a future transportation fuel with a stable price regardless of oil prices, the fuel is hydrogen based and produces no carbon emissions when burned. The technology is based on complex hydrides, and has been developed over a four year top secret program at the prestigious Rutherford Appleton Laboratory near Oxford. Early indications are that the fuel can be used in existing internal combustion engined vehicles without engine modification.


Monsanto’s Roundup Triggers Over 40 Plant Diseases and Endangers Human and Animal Health – (Institute for Responsible Technology- January 14, 2011)
Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) is a serious plant disease that ravaged the Midwest in 2009 and ’10, driving down yields and profits. More than 30% of all herbicides sprayed anywhere contain glyphosate-the world’s bestselling weed killer. It was patented by Monsanto for use in their Roundup brand, which became more popular when they introduced “Roundup Ready” crops starting in 1996 and appears to be responsible for SDS among other plant diseases.

What’s in Your Future Kitchen? Food Fabrication Technology Prints Out Your Meals in Seconds – (Natural News – January 26, 2011)
“Food fabrication” allows you to fabricate foods right in your own kitchen, layer by layer, in much the same way an inkjet printer prints a color bar chart on a piece of paper. Several food fabrication devices already exist, in fact. The most notable example is from Cornell University’s Computational Synthesis Lab. Keep in mind though that it can really only fabricate foods out of homogenized, semi-liquid ingredients such as chocolate syrup, cookie dough, or tomato paste (for example). And you still need to load up the syringes with the various ingredients to be used in the fabrication. (Editor’s note: this does not appear be a technology whose “time has come”, but check out the article – it’s discussion of the ramifications are thought provoking.)

Genetically Modified Chickens Don’t Pass On The Flu – (NPR – January 19, 2011)
British researchers have created a chicken that can get the flu, but can’t pass it on to other birds – or, presumably, to the humans who take care of them. The British team, with the support of a big poultry breeder and government funding, inserted a gene into chickens that blocks flu viruses from replicating. These genetically modified chickens can get infected. But their cells don’t spew forth zillions of copies of flu viruses – so nearby poultry don’t get sick. The secret of flu-proofing chicken flocks is an artificial gene that contains a snippet of genetic material from the H5N1 flu virus. This bit of RNA codes for polymerase, an enzyme flu viruses need to make more of themselves.

Dutch Scientists Push for Bugs to Replace Meat as Food Source – (Natural News – January 26, 2011)
Arnold van Huis and his research team from Wageningen University in the Netherlands believe that insects and other bugs are more sustainable food source for humans than traditional cows and pigs. “There will come a day when a Big Mac costs $164 and a Bug Mac $16, when more people will eat insects than other meat,” announced Huis. “The best way to start is to try it once.” Insects have been either a food staple or a delicacy in many parts of the world for thousands of years. Perhaps we just need to catch up.

The Organic Elite Surrenders to Monsanto – (Huffington Post – January 28, 2011)
In the wake of a 12-year battle to keep Monsanto’s Genetically Engineered (GE) crops from contaminating the nation’s 25,000 organic farms and ranches, America’s organic consumers and producers are facing betrayal. A self-appointed cabal of the Organic Elite, spearheaded by Whole Foods Market, Organic Valley, and Stonyfield Farm, has decided it’s time to surrender to Monsanto. Top executives from these companies have publicly admitted that they no longer oppose the mass commercialization of GE crops, such as Monsanto’s controversial Roundup Ready alfalfa, and are prepared to sit down and cut a deal for “coexistence” with Monsanto. In exchange for a new assault on farmworkers and rural communities (a recent large-scale Swedish study found that spraying Roundup doubles farm workers’ and rural residents’ risk of getting cancer), WFM expects the pro-biotech USDA to begin to regulate rather than cheerlead for Monsanto.


Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay – (New York Times – January 15, 2011
The Dimona complex in the Negev desert is famous as the heavily guarded heart of Israel’s never-acknowledged nuclear arms program. Experts say Dimona tested the effectiveness of the Stuxnet computer worm, a destructive program that appears to have wiped out roughly a fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges and helped delay, though not destroy, Tehran’s ability to make its first nuclear arms. Though American and Israeli officials refuse to talk publicly about what goes on at Dimona, the operations there, as well as related efforts in the United States, are among the newest and strongest clues suggesting that the virus was designed as an American-Israeli project to sabotage the Iranian program.

39 Signs of the Decay of the Russian Federation – (Smart Economy – January 23, 2011)
Here’s one pundit’s preliminary list of early warning signals that point to the decay and collapse of both Russia and Ukraine. Similar conditions and circumstances existed before the collapse of the Soviet Union exactly 20 years ago. Included are such items as: tacit government support of contraband, narcotics trafficking and human trafficking; demographic collapse; conflicts on the periphery; army can’t afford to pay utilities or conscript salaries, hunger strikes over wages; and government worker salaries withheld.


For Funerals Too Far, Mourners Gather on the Web – (New York Times – January 24, 2011)
In an age of commemorating birthdays, weddings and anniversaries on Facebook and Twitter, it was perhaps inevitable that live Web-streaming funerals for friends and loved ones would be next. Now the once-private funerals and memorials of less-noted citizens are also going online. Several software companies have created easy-to-use programs to help funeral homes cater to bereaved families. FuneralOne, a one-stop shop for online memorials that is based in St. Clair, Mich., has seen the number of funeral homes offering Webcasts increase to 1,053 in 2010, from 126 in 2008 (it also sells digital tribute DVDs).


World Business Leaders Told Flying Saucers Are Real & Extraterrestrials Exist – (Exopolitics Institute – January 25, 2011)
At five thousand dollars a ticket, some business leaders got more than they bargained for when they attended the first day of the Global Competitiveness Forum (GCF) held in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. They were told flying saucers are real, and they had better start thinking about the business implications of extraterrestrial life and technologies. Convened each year by the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority, the GCF brings together business and political leaders to discuss ways of promoting business competitiveness. For the first time at its annual conference, the GCF held a panel discussing UFOs and extraterrestrial life. Titled “Learning from Outer Space” the panel comprised five speakers who all endorsed the view that extraterrestrial life is real, and has many implications for the world as we know it.

Outside the Box Thinking on the Future of the Space Program – (Yahoo – January 14, 2011)
Two interesting plans have been developed by two very different space visionaries. Paul Spudis, a lunar geologist and advocate for a return to the Moon, has proposed a new architecture for a systematic return to the Moon. Spudis’s plan, developed with Tony Lavoie of NASA’s Marshal Spaceflight Center, begins with sending teleoperated robots to the site of a lunar outpost to prospect for and then extract lunar resources, principally water, then cache them for later use. Meanwhile Robert Zubrin has suggested something he calls the “Transorbital Railroad.”

If Contact Occurs: the Return to the Long Home – (Unknown Country – January 21, 2011)
Once again, there are rumors that some sort of official admission of an alien presence might take place. I don’t wish to speculate on that but, if it does happen, two things will then change significantly: first, the complexity of human experience will increase exponentially; second, over time, there will be a shift in the center of gravity of our consciousness, away from the physical and into energetic reality. What happens in a society undergoing this type of change is extraordinarily complex. The new perspective that emerges makes the physical, which has previously seemed to be the only world, appear in a very different light.

Ex-China Foreign Ministry Official: “Extraterrestrials Live Among Us” – (Daily Galaxy – January 28, 2011)
In sharp contrast to the industrialized West, the Buddhist milieu of China has encouraged their scientific community, with the support of government, to seek to explore UFO incidences and evidence of human contact with extraterrestrials. Russia’s Izvestia reports that China has a record number of UFO scientific and community-based organizations, protected by the government-funded National Society of the Extraterrestrial Studies, founded 25 years ago. Only professional scientists and engineers are allowed to become members in the Society. A person is also required to have Ph.D. in science and have several published works about UFOs. About a third of the members are in the Chinese government.


The AI Revolution Is On – (Wired – December 27, 2010)
The newest trend in warehouses includes a seeming abdication of logic. But these warehouses aren’t meant to be understood by humans; they were built for bots. Instead of organizing the warehouse as a human might-by placing like products next to one another, for instance-the robots stick items in various aisles throughout the facility. Then, to fill an order, the first available robot simply finds the closest requested item. The storeroom is an ever-shifting mass that adjusts to constantly changing data, like the size and popularity of merchandise, the geography of the warehouse, and the location of each robot. Set up by Kiva Systems, which has outfitted similar facilities for Gap, Staples, and Office Depot, the system can deliver items to packers at the rate of one every six seconds. (These bots could put the least expensive human labor anywhere on the planet out of work.)

The Healing Power of Light – (Technology Review – January 20, 2011)
A new polymer material that can repeatedly heal itself at room temperature when exposed to ultraviolet light presents the tantalizing possibility of products that can repair themselves when damaged. Possibilities include self-healing medical implants, cars, or even airplane parts. Created by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Kyushu University, the polymer heals when a crack in the material is pressed together and exposed to UV light. Currently, the polymer can only repair itself in an oxygen-free environment, so the researchers had to carry out the UV treatment in the presence of pure nitrogen. But they hope to develop polymers that heal under visible light and don’t require nitrogen, which should open up many practical applications, including products and components that heal after suffering minor damage.

For Robust Robots, Let Them Be Babies First – (Kurzweil AI – January 21, 2011)
In a first-of-its-kind experiment, University of Vermont roboticist Josh Bongard created both simulated and actual robots that, like tadpoles becoming frogs, change their body forms while learning how to walk. Over generations, his simulated robots also evolved, spending less time in “infant” tadpole-like forms and more time in “adult” four-legged forms. These evolving populations of robots were able to learn to walk more rapidly than ones with fixed body forms. And, in their final form, the changing robots had developed a more robust gait than the ones that had learned to walk using upright legs from the beginning.


The Most Predictable Financial Calamity in History – (USA Watchdog – January 24, 2011)
Five well-known financial gurus who all predicted tough times for America when most didn’t see it coming were recently asked to peer into the not-so-distant future for their take on “What happens when QE2 (a second round of quantitative easing) ends?” One after another, their answers tended in the following direction: “The Fed never said that QE2 would end; that’s a popular misconception but they never said it. What they said was that they would buy $600 billion of intermediate term Treasury securities by June 2011. They never said that was all they would buy. They never said they would stop.”

The Great Debt Shift – (Financial Sense – January 24, 2011)
If one were asked to describe the major global economic changes that have unfolded since the financial crisis began, a good starting place would be the massive shift of debt from the private to the public sector. Attempting to arrest a deepening crisis, governments all around the world have bailed out businesses and companies by transferring bad debts to the public books. Two of the world’s largest economies, the EU ($16 trillion) and the US ($14 trillion), have become the leading practitioners of private-to-public debt shifting. In the US, the forces of fiscal restraint appear to have the upper hand at present; but, this late in the game, it is far from certain that the newly elected fiscal hawks will be able to avert civil unrest and debt default.

The Fed Report: U.S. Bails Out the Empire – (LaRouche PAC – December 4, 2010)
This video clip details where the funding that the Fed used to bail out many financial institutions, both domestic and foreign, and other entities went. If you would prefer to read a print article disclosing much of the same information, it can be found here.

Visualizing Obama’s Budget Cuts – (You Tube – April 24, 2009)
Although this short video clip is outdated in terms of federal budget specifics, it provides an excellent graphic presentation of the relative size of various proposed budget cuts in comparison to the budget as a whole. So just how much is $100 million dollars in budget cuts compared to the federal budget as a whole? To offer a sense of scale, this video imagines the overall budget as $100 in pennies (10,000 pennies) to provide the answer.


The Scale of the Universe – (Primax Studio – no date)
Navigate by moving the slider at the bottom of the screen to the right or left and compare the scale of everything from the smallest Planck Length to the entire universe. Great graphics. Nicely suitable background music.


We know what we are, but know not what we may be.– William Shakespeare. (Hamlet, Act 4, Scene 5)

A special thanks to: Thomas Bergin, Bernard Calil, Jackie Capell, Kevin Clark, Ken Dabkowski, Walter Derzko, Kevin Foley, Chas Freeman, Ursula Freer, Kurzweil AI, Diane Petersen, Lynnda Pollio, Abby Porter, John Rolls, Tom Valovic, Debra Whiddon and all of you who have sent us interesting links in the past. If you see something we should know about, do send it along – thanks.


Edited by John L. Petersen

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A Vision for 2012: Planning for Extraordinary Change
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Volume 14, Number 1 – 01/15/11

Volume 14, Number 3 – 02/15/11